Mapeo de fluorescencia inducida por láser de pigmentos en murales secco pintados

  • María Auxiliadora Gómez-Morón Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico (IAPH), Seville, Spain
  • Rocío Ortiz Department Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain
  • Franceso Colao Fusion and Technology for Nuclear safety and Security. Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). Frascati, Italy
  • Roberta Fantoni Fusion and Technology for Nuclear safety and Security. Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). Frascati, Italy.
  • Javier Becerra Luna Universidad Pablo de Olavide
  • Pilar Ortiz Department Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain
Palabras clave: Fluorescencia ultravioleta inducida por láser, base de datos de técnica a secco, Mapeado superficial de pigmento, esmalte y carmín, técnica no invasiva, aplicación en patrimonio cultural


La fluorescencia inducida por láser es una técnica de análisis a distancia, aplicada con éxito en tiempo real para el diagnóstico de obras de arte, permitiendo la observación de características invisibles al ojo humano, como rastros de retoques o la presencia de consolidantes modernos.

El objetivo de este artículo es generar una base de datos de pigmentos históricos con sus respectivos aglutinantes y consolidantes, realizada para respaldar la identificación remota y el mapeo de estos materiales en un mural de la forma menos invasiva posible. Para este objetivo, se ha utilizado una fuente láser monocromática ultravioleta que emite a 266nm con escaneado remoto en combinación con reflectancia. Se realizaron modelos de pintura mural en técnica a secco de acuerdo con las recetas tradicionales del siglo XVII.

Análisis digital de imagen, análisis de componentes principales y mapeado de ángulo espectral ha sido llevado a cabo para obtener los datos de mapeado de dos pigmentos seleccionados, azul esmalte y rojo carmín en una pintura mural real (siglo XVII). Esta técnica no invasiva nos permitió trabajar de manera remota, a una distancia de 11 m de la obra de arte. Los resultados son consecuentes con los microanálisis tradicionales llevados a cabo para identificar pigmentos mayoritarios.


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Biografía del autor/a

María Auxiliadora Gómez-Morón, Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico (IAPH), Seville, Spain

BSc Chemistry 1989-1994 and Master “Quimilaser.Laser application in Chemistry” 2012 (University of Sevilla). Member, since 2016, of the project “Art-Risk (Artificial Intelligence applied to preventive conservation of heritage buildings)” to investigate and develop a new computerized tool for preventive conservation of heritage in urban centres based on models of artificial intelligence. Art-Risk will be available to organizations and companies dedicated to the restoration and rehabilitation. Member, since 1995, of the research group “Remote Sensing and Geochemistry”, with long-term experience in the research line in Archaeometry. Socrates grant at the University la Sapienza, where she worked in the project “Testaccio” (1999). An 18 months training grant at the IAPH (Andalusian Institution for Historical Heritage), from 1.11.1999 to 30.4.2001. A grant for conservation and restoration of cultural heritage at the Institution for Spanish Historical Heritage (2001). Since 2001, she works at IAPH (Andalusian Institution for Historical Heritage), where she takes part in projects such as Giraldillo’s restoration and is responsible of the project for application of non-destructive analytical techniques for Historical Heritage. Part time professor at University Pablo de Olavide (Sevilla) since 2009, where she has taught three editions of the on-line course of non-destructive analytical techniques for Historical Heritage.

Rocío Ortiz, Department Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain

Graduated in Architecture in 2001, she obtained a Master’s degree in Protection of Built Heritage with a project oriented to a case study in Marchena in 2012. In 2014 she earned a Ph.D with European mention in University Pablo de Olavide (Seville).

She is currently working as Professor at the UPO, where she develops research focus on the fields of: Preventive Conservation; Risks and Vulnerability of Patrimony

She is also director of the Mater in Diagnosis of the state of preservation of Cutural Heritage and is responsible of the area of crystallography and mineralogy of the same University.

Dr. Ortiz’s expertise is in diagnosis of Cultural Heritage, management, e-learning, and her scientific works appeared in 30 books, conference proceedings, and journals. Her research projects have been supported by the European Union, national and regional governments, and private organizations.

Dr. Ortiz’s research interests have focused on risk and vulnerability of Cultural Heritage, GI applied to Cultural Heritage studies, Construction materials, Urban Planning and hazards and innovation in science teaching with the emphasis on cultural heritage diagnosis

Franceso Colao, Fusion and Technology for Nuclear safety and Security. Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). Frascati, Italy

Senior Scientist, Technology Application for Security and Heath Division, Diagnostic and Metrology Laboratory (FSN-TECFIS-DIM).

Specialist in laser applications, signal processing and data acquisition, current interests concern the development of fluorescence lidar for the analysis of pigments, binders and consolidants.

Since 1987 he is researcher at ENEA, carrying out research in design and development of remote sensing laser-based systems for atmospheric studies. Known expert in the field of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics, including lidar for atmospheric studies, Raman spectroscopy, visible/UV emission spectroscopy, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF). He gained large experience of remote sensing systems for different applications: environmental control of pollutants, and remote diagnostic in the field of cultural heritage. Currently the main activities in the latter field are related to the development of fluorescence lidar, used to monitor the water quality (chemical and biochemical pollution) and the vegetation health (both on phytoplankton species and on green plants), cultural heritage (analysis of pigments, binders and consolidants), application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and lidar remote sensing of the statosphere.

He was involved in the study of LIBS and its application to the field of laser matter interaction and monitoring of soil and water. He has been responsible for several research projects, among these it is worth of mention the followings: application of LIBS to identification of asbestos’ fibres in environmental samples (ISPESL programme 2003-04), development of a LIBS system for extraterrestrial soil analysis (ASI programme 2001-02), study of polar stratospheric clouds by lidar remote sensing (2006, 2017-19), development of a LIBS system for use in hostile environment (MURST programme 2004-07) , development of an integrated system for drug discovery by laser spectroscopy (CUSTOM – EU FP7 2010-2012), development of LIF system for forensic investigation (FORLAB– EU FP7 2011-2013), development of standoff Raman system for prompt identification of explosive substances (NATO project RADEX 2014-16, EXTRAS 2018-20).

He has been tutoring of thesis and has given lectures to universities and research centers. The results of his researches have been presented at international conferences and published in peer review journals in more than fifty regulars.

Roberta Fantoni, Fusion and Technology for Nuclear safety and Security. Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). Frascati, Italy.

Dr. Roberta Fantoni is the head of the division “Technology Applications for Security and Health” at Fusion and Technology for Nuclear Safety and Security (ENEA). Her role is to coordinate researches in the field of development of applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations, including processes and diagnostics based on lasers and particles (electrons, protons) beams for the Industry, Environment, Cultural Heritage and Bio-medicine, and Micro-Nanotechnology.

After a degree in chemistry she became a specialist in optoelectronics dealing with laser applications. She is a known expert in the field of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics. Major activities concern applications of the spectroscopic techniques as on-line diagnostics during different process. Recently she coordinated the regional project COBRA dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in Cultural Heritage conservation.

Author of 164 scientific papers of peer review papers and 25 book chapters in the field of spectroscopy and laser applications.

Javier Becerra Luna, Universidad Pablo de Olavide

PhD in History and Humanities: Europe, America, Arts and Language, degree in Conservation and Restoration and MSc Diagnosis of the State of Preservation of the Historical Heritage. Now, Javier is researcher at the Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, Spain. His research activity has focused on a) studies of new conservation-restoration treatments, especially based on nanomaterials b) vulnerability and risk studies in cultural heritage and c) diagnosis, analytical techniques and interventions in cultural heritage. This scientific production has resulted in a patent, 15 journal publications (10 in high impact indexed journals) and 12 book chapters. The results of the investigations carried out have been presented at 10 international conferences with a total of 18 communications.

He has collaborated in the diagnosis of samples from national and international monuments (Villa Adriana in Rome, Medina Azahara, archaeological museum of Écija, churches in Seville, contemporary buildings in La Havana, historical buildings in Oxford and Panama City, etc.) and has participated in analytical reports of national and international artworks requested from institutions such as the Andalusian Institute of Historical Heritage or the Pablo de Olavide University.

Finally, his research activity has been recognized with different awards at national and international level.

Pilar Ortiz, Department Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain

The research and teaching experience developed has been focused on the diagnosis, preservation and conservation of cultural heritage. For this task, she has collaborated with museums and cultural institutions, such as the IVCR+i, IAPH, Cádiz Museum, Écija Museum, etc. Additionally, I have developed works related to cultural heritage issues in several countries, i.e., the United Kingdom, Belgium, Italy, Romania, Cuba, Peru, Colombia, Panama, etc. Her scientific production can be summarized in 38 publications on indexed journals; 50 books and book chapters, more than 25 attendances to international congresses, chairman and member of scientific committee in several international congresses, etc. She has worked at the University of Amberes (Belgium) as assistant lecturer, invited professor at the University of Oxford (UK), and invited researcher at ENEA (Italy).

She has participated in 24 national and international projects, contracts and agreements and has the head researcher in 16 of those projects, highlighting a Project of Excellence of the Junta de Andalucía, a RETOS project of the Government of Spain, an International Cooperation project of the Junta de Andalucía and International Erasmus+.

She has opened and leadership important research lines as the application of Lasers techniques for in situ diagnosis in cultural heritage materials, the development of non-destructive techniques for diagnosis of cultural heritage, or the application of risk maps, vulnerability index and artificial intelligence to the preventive conservation of cultural heritage.

Dr. Ortiz is member of the International Excellency Campus of the University of Jaén in cultural and natural heritage, of the “Cambio” work group in the International Excellency Campus of the Pablo de Olavide University (UPO), of the Andalusian Council of Cultural Heritage and Dean of the faculty of Experimental Sciences of the UPO.


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Cómo citar
Gómez-Morón, M. A., Ortiz, R., Colao, F., Fantoni, R., Becerra Luna, J., & Ortiz, P. (2020). Mapeo de fluorescencia inducida por láser de pigmentos en murales secco pintados. Ge-Conservacion, 17(1), 233-250.